Wednesday, 5 August 2015

सोमनाथ मन्दिर

सोमनाथ मंदिर एक महत्वपूर्ण हिन्दू मंदिर है जिसकी गिनती १२ ज्योतिर्लिंगों में सर्वप्रथम ज्योतिर्लिंगके रूप में होती है । गुजरात के सौराष्ट्र क्षेत्र के वेरावल बंदरगाह में स्थित इस मंदिर के बारे में कहा जाता है कि इसका निर्माण स्वयं चन्द्रदेव ने किया था । इसका उल्लेख ऋग्वेद में भी मिलता है । इसे अब तक १७ बार नष्ट किया गया है और हर बार इसका पुनर्निर्माण किया गया ।

सोमनाथ का बारह ज्योतिर्लिगों में सबसे प्रमुख स्थान है। सोमनाथ मंदिर विश्व प्रसिद्ध धार्मिक व पर्यटन स्थल है। मंदिर प्रांगण में रात साढे सात से साढे आठ बजे तक एक घंटे का साउंड एंड लाइट शो चलता है, जिसमें सोमनाथ मंदिर के इतिहास का बडा ही सुंदर सचित्र वर्णन किया जाता है। लोककथाओं के अनुसार यहीं श्रीकृष्ण ने देहत्याग किया था। इस कारण इस क्षेत्र का और भी महत्व बढ गया। ऐसी मान्यता है कि श्रीकृष्ण भालुका तीर्थ पर विश्राम कर रहे थे। तब ही शिकारी ने उनके पैर के तलुए में पद्मचिन्ह को हिरण की आंख जानकर धोखे में तीर मारा था। तब ही कृष्ण ने देह त्यागकर यहीं से वैकुंठ गमन किया। इस स्थान पर बडा ही सुन्दर कृष्ण मंदिर बना हुआ है।

सोमनाथ मन्दिर इतिहास

सागर तट से मंदिर का दृश्य सर्वप्रथम एक मंदिर ईसा के पूर्व में अस्तित्व में था जिस जगह पर द्वितीय बार मंदिर का पुनर्निर्माण सातवीं सदी में वल्लभी के मैत्रक राजाओं ने किया । आठवीं सदी में सिन्ध के अरबी गवर्नर जुनायद ने इसे नष्ट करने के लिए अपनी सेना भेजी । प्रतिहार राजा नागभट्ट ने 815 ईस्वी में इसका तीसरी बार पुनर्निर्माण किया । इस मंदिर की महिमा और कीर्ति दूर-दूर तक फैली थी । अरब यात्री अल-बरुनी ने अपने यात्रा वृतान्त में इसका विवरण लिखा जिससे प्रभावित हो महमूद ग़ज़नवी ने सन १०२४ में कुछ ५,००० साथियों के साथ सोमनाथ मंदिर पर हमला किया, उसकी सम्पत्ति लूटी और उसे नष्ट कर दिया । ५०,००० लोग मंदिर के अंदर हाथ जोडकर पूजा अर्चना कर रहे थे ,प्रायः सभी कत्ल कर दिये गये।
इसके बाद गुजरात के राजा भीम और मालवा के राजा भोज ने इसका पुनर्निर्माण कराया । सन 1297 में जब दिल्ली सल्तनत ने गुजरात पर क़ब्ज़ा किया तो इसे पाँचवीं बार गिराया गया । मुगल बादशाह औरंगजेब ने इसे पुनः 1706 में गिरा दिया । इस समय जो मंदिर खड़ा है उसे भारत के गृह मन्त्री सरदार वल्लभ भाई पटेल ने बनवाया और पहली दिसंबर 1995 को भारत के राष्ट्रपति शंकर दयाल शर्मा ने इसे राष्ट्र को समर्पित किया ।
१९४८ में प्रभासतीर्थ प्रभास पाटण के नाम से जाना जाता था। इसी नाम से इसकी तहसील और नगर पालिका थी। यह जूनागढ रियासत का मुख्य नगर था। लेकिन १९४८ के बाद इसकी तहसील, नगर पालिका और तहसील कचहरी का वेरावल में विलय हो गया। मंदिर का बार-बार खंडन और जीर्णोद्धार होता रहा पर शिवलिंग यथावत रहा। लेकिन सन १०२६ में महमूद गजनी ने जो शिवलिंग खंडित किया, वह यही आदि शिवलिंग था। इसके बाद प्रतिष्ठित किए गए शिवलिंग को १३०० में अलाउद्दीन की सेना ने खंडित किया। इसके बाद कई बार मंदिर और शिवलिंग खंडित किया गया। बताया जाता है आगरा के किले में रखे देवद्वार सोमनाथ मंदिर के हैं। महमूद गजनी सन १०२६ में लूटपाट के दौरान इन द्वारों को अपने साथ ले गया था। सोमनाथ मंदिर के मूल मंदिर स्थल पर मंदिर ट्रस्ट द्वारा निर्मित नवीन मंदिर स्थापित है। राजा कुमार पाल द्वारा इसी स्थान पर अन्तिम मंदिर बनवाया गया था। सौराष्ट्र के मुख्यमन्त्री उच्छंगराय नवल शंकर ढेबर ने १९ अप्रैल १९४० को यहां उत्खनन कराया था। इसके बाद भारत सरकार के पुरातत्व विभाग ने उत्खनन द्वारा प्राप्त ब्रह्मशिला पर शिव का ज्योतिर्लिग स्थापित किया है। सौराष्ट्र के पूर्व राजा दिग्विजय सिंह ने ८ मई १९५० को मंदिर की आधार शिला रखी तथा ११ मई १९५१ को भारत के प्रथम राष्ट्रपति डॉ. राजेंद्र प्रसाद ने मंदिर में ज्योतिर्लिग स्थापित किया। नवीन सोमनाथ मंदिर १९६२ में पूर्ण निर्मित हो गया। १९७० में जामनगर की राजमाता ने अपने स्वर्गीय पति की स्मृति में उनके नाम से दिग्विजय द्वार बनवाया। इस द्वार के पास राजमार्ग है और पूर्व गृहमन्त्री सरदार बल्लभ भाई पटेल की प्रतिमा है। सोमनाथ मंदिर निर्माण में पटेल का बडा योगदान रहा। मंदिर के दक्षिण में समुद्र के किनारे एक स्तंभ है। उसके ऊपर एक तीर रखकर संकेत किया गया है कि सोमनाथ मंदिर और दक्षिण ध्रुव के बीच में पृथ्वी का कोई भूभाग नहीं है। मंदिर के पृष्ठ भाग में स्थित प्राचीन मंदिर के विषय में मान्यता है कि यह पार्वती जी का मंदिर है। सोमनाथजी के मंदिर की व्यवस्था और संचालन का कार्य सोमनाथ ट्रस्ट के अधीन है। सरकार ने ट्रस्ट को जमीन, बाग-बगीचे देकर आय का प्रबंध किया है। यह तीर्थ पितृगणों के श्राद्ध, नारायण बलि आदि कर्मो के लिए भी प्रसिद्ध है। चैत्र, भाद्र, कार्तिक माह में यहां श्राद्ध करने का विशेष महत्व बताया गया है। इन तीन महीनों में यहां श्रद्धालुओं की बडी भीड लगती है। इसके अलावा यहां तीन नदियों हिरण, कपिला और सरस्वती का महासंगम होता है। इस त्रिवेणी स्नान का विशेष महत्व है।

Deficit of Brides


Most unexpected metamorphosis takes place, through Kadva Patel of Gujrat and Mangalore of Karnataka.  While there would be nothing unusual about this for most other communities, for the Kadva Patels, to whom marriage outside their caste is nothing short of blasphemy, it's an astounding development. However, there is a reason - not growing liberalism but Gujarat's skewed sex ratio where males far outnumber females. Karnataka, especially Mangalore, is one of the places where the Kadva Patels, confronting a shortage of brides, have been looking for the past several years - there are at least 300 women from Mangalore now in different villages of Saurashtra. But it's not like the two places have no cultural connect at all. A Mangalore-Kathiawad connection exists on account of the large number of Kadva Patels engaged in the betel nut business in Mangalore. Over 2, 200 Gujaratis, mainly Kadva Patels, have been settled there for the last four decades. The women from the south are happy to move to Gujarat. Tulsi, a native of Ariyapadav village near Mangalore, has married a rich farmer, Kamlesh Patel, in Khageshree village in Porbandar. 

Vansjaliya, who says that the shortage of brides has created "a major social problem across the state" declares that the community "needs to look for other options in the country". "We need to tackle the marriage issue in an organised manner, " he says, a sentiment which is shared by former irrigation minister and Junagadh-based Kadva Patel leader Mohanlal Patel. To this end, community leaders are planning a mass wedding between Kathiawadi men with girls from UP and MP. 

Sunday, 26 July 2015

Love Jihad’ in Bhuj



Bhij. June 30  After two incidents of what is described as ‘Love Jihad’ in central Gujarat, there’s another such incident that has created tension in district headquarters Bhuj in border district of Kutch in Gujarat.
One Hindu Patidar(Patel) girl Monika Parshottam Dagada has been converted to Mariam after her marriage with married Muslim man Abdulkarim Sama.
As per laws passed in late Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s government, Hindu male can have one wife only but Muslim can have four wives. Recently in another incident in Nadiad in central Gujarat, a young Hindu girl in her early twenties eloped with a Muslim male in 40s who has two wives.
Large number of Hindus, mainly from Patidar community gathered outside Bhuj ‘A’ division to protest ‘Love Jihad’ incident.
After pressure from police on brother of Muslim male, Monika Dagada was brought to police station.
Parents of other girl Darshan Rameshpuri Goswami who is student of Sanskar college in Bhuj also came to police station to raise the issue of their daughter who is missing with a Muslim man.
As per one estimate in last one year there have been 22 such incidents in Kutch district. In Sanskar college of Bhuj itself this is third such incident.

Saturday, 25 July 2015

Vibrant Saurashtra Expo


The Idea of bringing honorable PM Shri Narendra Modi’s Vibrant legacy to regional level turned out very well with success of vibrant kutch expo & summit 2015. On the basis of Overwhelming response & greetings received from Exhibitors, Industrialists, Political Leaders and Visitors, Government of Gujarat has encouraged us to continue this series and recommended us to organise same for saurashtra region on same theme and concepts. we would like to announce VIBRANT SAURASHTRA EXPO AND SUMMIT 2016 at this moment as the need of an hour for creating vibrant platform for the development of Saurashtra region.
Vibrant Saurashtra Expo & Summit 2016 will be an ideal convergence for Saurashtra Industries and people to showcase their strengths, highlight business opportunities, facilitate knowledge dissemination etc. It also provides an attractive opportunity to its participants to understand the potential of Saurashtra in various sectors.

Thursday, 9 July 2015

Earthquakes in ancient Saurashtra




Strong earthquakes in quick succession in the country have heightened the sensitivity of the common man towards this natural phenomenon. Effects of earthquakes can be so severe as to cause social and political upheavals apart from property damage. Thus mitigation of seismic risk in big cities is a matter of concern to engineers and administrators alike. All the current scientific approaches the world over, depend on historical records for estimating the seismic hazard in a given region. Unfortunately for the Indian subcontinent, reliable data on place and date are available for the past two hundred years only. A recent work undertaken by
Iyengar et al.1 has led to a reliable identification of another twenty earthquake occurrences in the medieval period (12–18th century AD). This still leaves the ancient period almost blank except for stray references. However, this does not mean that ancient Indians were not fascinated or not affected by earthquakes. The VedasPuranas and the epics contain many references to earthquakes and allied phenomena. But what may be of interest in the contemporary context, are the writings of persons who were acclaimed scholars of their days. There exist a large number of writings in Sanskrit on natural phenomena. Among these, at least two are available in print namely, Brihat Samhita (B.S.) of Varaha Mihira2 (5–6th century AD) and Adbhuta Sagara (A.S.) of Ballala Sena3(10–11th century AD).

Kirata, Kira, Abhisara, Hala, Madra,
Arbuda, Saurastra, Malva; A.S.: Kashmira, Dravida, Andhaka, China, Prachya, Shaka, 
Pahlava, Dandaka, Kailasa, Malla, Vahala.

Discussion on causes of earthquakes had been a perennial topic in ancient Indian literature. According to A.S., the opinion of Kashyapa was that earthquakes were due to movement of sea creatures, whereas Garga opined that it was due to the sigh of elephants carrying the earth. According to Vasishta, tremors were due to interaction of two strong winds which eventually impacted the oceans and shook the earth. Another opinion was that earthquakes occurred due to chance or unseen forces. Finally, both B.S. and A.S. give an explanation due to Parashara that once upon a time mountains could fly and move. Thus they were frequently falling on the earth causing earthquakes continuously. At the request of the earth, the Creator ordered Indra (thunder) to cut the wings of the mountains so that the earth became stable. Yet, the four elements namely Wind, Fire and Water along with Indra cause the earth to shake. This explanation originating from the Rig Veda has been given in the two texts as a rudimentary theory on formation of stable continents and not in any religious sense. Ballala Sena quotes another writer Ushanas, who was categorical that the four elements shake the earth in the four quarters east, south, west and north, respectively. From the commentaries on B.S., we find that Parashara was of the opinion that eclipses and planetary aberrations could also cause earthquakes. Over the centuries this idea might have been given up since A.S. does not list this reason.

After discussing the causes, both the books turn their attention to classification of earthquakes into four groups, depending on the time of occurrence and the reigning stellar constellation. Thus, an earthquake which occurs from north in the last quarter of the night or in the first quarter of the day under any of the stars Asvini, Mrigasira, Punarvasu, Hasta, Chitta, Svati or Uttarapalguni belongs to the wind group (Vayavya). The directions of occurrence are not explicitly mentioned in B.S. These were given by Ushanas as quoted in A.S. It is also mentioned that many scholars do not accept the classification based on the time of occurrence. Similarly, earthquakes of the Agni (fire), Indra and Varuna (water) group originate from south, east and west, respectively and are governed by specific star groups. Neither of the books indicate how the directions are to be fixed. It is observed that so far the effort has been only to group the earthquakes after their occurrence, according to some recognizable attributes.

About the effects of earthquakes, Varaha Mihira does not mention about damages to buildings. However other writers are categorical that Vayu-type earthquakes lead to extensive destruction of houses, monasteries, temples, palaces, towers and forts. The after-effects mentioned are occurrences of windstorms within a week after such an earthquake. Similarly, the Agni-type earthquake induces surface fires engulfing villages and towns. Rivers and water sources dry up. Indra-type tremors, lead to rains and elimination of pest colonies. The Varuna-type earthquake kills people living along river and sea coasts. Earthquakes were also supposed to be a portent for impending death of kings, outbreak of wars and epidemics. In B.S. the list of regions affected, is short, whereas information given in A.S. from various sources including those of B.S. is more exhaustive. The geographical regions disturbed by earthquakes according to both the books are as follows.
Vayu-type earthquake
B.S.: Saurashtra, Kuru, Magadha, Dasarna, Matsya; A.S.: Yavana, Dandaka, Salva, Sauvardhana, Pulinda, Videha, Nala, Darada, Anga, Vanga, Avanti, Malva, Trigarta, Sauvira, Yaudheya, Ksudraka, Shivika, Madraka, Shaka, Kamboja, Bahlika, Gandhara, Kalinga, Sabara, Mlechha, Tangana.
Agni-type earthquake
B.S.: Ashmaka, Anga, Bahlika, Tangana, Kalinga, Vanga, Dravida, Shabara; A.S.: Pulinda, Yavana, Odhra, Avanti, Iksvaku, Kuluta, Tushara, Shivika, Trigarta, Videha, Surastra, Madhyadesh, Dasarna.
Indra-type earthquake
B.S.: Kashi, Yugandhara, Paurava,
Varuna-type earthquake
B.S.: Gonarda, Chedi, Kukkura, Kirata, Videha; A.S.: Kashmira, Parata, Vatsa, Abraka, Karusha, Sinhala.
 
It was recognized by all the authors that earthquakes may occur under any star at any time. Thus, combination-type earthquakes became possible. The places affected by such mixed-type tremors as mentioned by Parashara, are reported in A.S.
 
Vayu–Agni: Kuru, Salva, Matsya, Nishadha, Pundra, Andhra, Kalinga, Vindhya foothills.
Vayu–Indra: Prachya, Shaka, China, Pahlava, Yaudheya, Yavana, Magadha.
Vayu–Varuna: Avantika, Pulinda, Videha, Kashmira, Darada.
Agni–Indra: Ikshvaku, Patachara, Abhira, China, Barukacha.
Agni–Varuna: Gonarda, Anganarajya, Coastal regions.
Indra–Varuna: Kashi, Abhisara, Achyuta, Kachadvipa.
 
The effects of these earthquakes were supposed to be a combination of the effects of the primary types described earlier. Many of the places in the list given earlier are easily identifiable with their present-day equivalents. Several regions are outside the present-day Indian political boundary. In Figure 1, the regions are marked taking into account the ancient geography of India as described in the works of Kautilya, Varaha Mihira, Bana, Kalhana and others. A question may arise as to how widespread the knowledge was about seismic regions in ancient times, and whether Dravida was in South India. Fortunately, a book in Kannada, Lokopakarakam, written in 1025 AD by Chamunda Raya4 under the patronage of the Chalukyan king Jayasimha is available as a cross-reference. This author devotes briefly eight stanzas for describing the four types of earthquakes. For the Vayu-type earthquake, he indicates the affected places as Kurumagadha, Magadha, Dravida and Kuntala. In his own explanation, Chamunda Raya identifies Dravida with Tigula Desa 


Tamil country). For Agni-type earthquakes he includes in his list Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Kerala, Bahlika and Dravida. According to this book, Indra-type earthquakes affect only Saurashtra and Abhisara; whereas Varuna-type earthquakes affect Videha, Govardhana, Nishadha and Vihara.

Interpretation of old texts concerning natural phenomena is difficult. Still, seen critically from the present-day perspective the delineation of the country into four major seismic zones of differing damage types, 1500 years ago is no mean achievement. This indicates some kind of observation and data collection. All the regions listed are presently known to be susceptible to earthquakes. But it is interesting to note that Dravida (Tamil country), Kuntala (North Karnataka), Ashmaka (Maharashtra), Andhra and Odhra (Orissa) were considered to be earthquake prone to varying degrees.

A significantly quantitative approach to earthquakes is reflected in the ancient writings. Vayu-type earthquake was unanimously accepted as the most destructive. Opinions differed about the other three. Some held that Agni-, Varuna-, and Indra-type earthquakes in that order were decreasingly harmful. It was perhaps in this context that the ancient writings introduced the extent of ground shaking as a measure of the four types. Ballala Sena in his A.S. first cites the book Bhargaviya which perhaps belongs to a period earlier than B.S. According to this text, the extent of ground shaking is 200 yojanas during Vayu-type earthquake. The corresponding values for Agni-, Indra- and Varuna-type earthquakes are given as 90, 80 and 70 yojanas, respectively. It may be speculated that this order was a reflection of the descending order of socially harmful effects associated with the four types of tremors. Varaha Mihira agrees with only the first value and for the other three, his values are Varuna-type 180, Indra-type 160, and Agni-type 110. No information is available on how these were obtained or measured. However, these values are amenable for interpretation from a contemporary perspective. One yojana is equal to 6 miles or 9.6 km as per actual measurements carried out by Stein5, of distances mentioned by Kalhana in his Rajatarangini. Thus, Vayu-type earthquakes could have had a radius of area of perceptibility of (100 yojana) 960 km.This may be compared with some modern values. The mean radius of percep-tibility for the great earthquakes of Assam (1897) and Bihar (1934) were 1440 km and 1280 km, respectively6. The level of human perceptibility for ground acceleration is generally accepted as 1 cm/s2. For this level of acceleration, the attenuation results currently available lead to magnitude estimates of 6–8 for the Vayu-type earthquake. It is quite well known that damage to man-made structures generally occurs from shocks of magnitude 5 and above. Thus, the regions said to be affected by Vayu-type earthquakes, shown in Figure 1, are the most likely places where damage-causing earthquakes have been felt in the ancient past. About prediction of earthquakes, Varaha Mihira is essentially silent. In chapter 4 of B.S. he echoes a previous opinion that when the moon’s orb appears like the yoke of a cart stretched south to north, there would be an earthquake. There was also a belief that comets were precursors for earthquakes. Parashara mentions that the comet chala ketu which appears once in 5000 years shakes the earth and destroys a populated country in the Madhyadesha. Similarly, he held the opinion that the comet Dhruva Ketu which appears at irregular intervals also portends earthquakes     There was also a strong belief about earthquakes being an omen for further tragedy. Ballala Sena would like us to believe earthquake citations from Puranas and Mahabharatha as historical evidence to this effect. The great epic cites earthquakes in Udyoga Parvan, in Drona Parvan, in Salya Parvan and three times in Gada Parvan. The graphic description in Salya Parvan is Chachala Sabdam Kurvana Saparvatavana Mahi (The earth moved along with mountains and forests making sound). At other places, the epic does not associate sound with the tremors. If accepted as factual, this would be the main shock accompanied by three aftershocks felt at Kurukshetra during the great war (circa 3000 BC). Apart from this speculation nothing more can be gleaned about the dates of earthquakes, from the books under reference.    The belief of linking earthquakes with the demise of important personages, appears to be derived from Buddhist traditions. Narratives7 about Buddha’s life mention that immediately after Buddha attained Nirvana (at Kushinagara in 483 BC), the earth trembled, stars fell down and celestial music was heard. Three months prior to this final act, the traditional texts state that when Buddha was camping in a grove to the north of the village Upabhoga, there was an earthquake. Buddha himself is said to have interpreted the earthquake as the sign that he would soon pass away into Nirvana.    Earthquakes have been occurring from ancient times in India and our ancestors took considerable interest in these as with other unusual phenomena. There has been an effort over centuries, to identify places which suffered from earthquakes. Varaha Mihira’s approach of describing earthquakes in terms of the extent of ground shaking is refreshingly scientific. The information available so far though very little, is valuable. It is quite likely that there are Sanskrit manuscripts with scientific information yet to be published. It is hoped that persons responsible for preparing seismic zonation maps of the country, study the relevant literature written prior to the colonial period before drawing conclusions on the subject.  There was also a strong belief about earthquakes being an omen for further tragedy. Ballala Sena would like us to believe earthquake citations from Puranas and Mahabharatha as historical evidence to this effect. The great epic cites earthquakes in Udyoga Parvan, in Drona Parvan, in Salya Parvan and three times in Gada Parvan. The graphic description in Salya Parvan is Chachala Sabdam Kurvana Saparvatavana Mahi (The earth moved along with mountains and forests making sound). At other places, the epic does not associate sound with the tremors. If accepted as factual, this would be the main shock accompanied by three aftershocks felt at Kurukshetra during the great war (circa 3000 BC). Apart from this speculation nothing more can be gleaned about the dates of earthquakes, from the books under reference.  The belief of linking earthquakes with the demise of important personages, appears to be derived from Buddhist traditions. Narratives7 about Buddha’s life mention that immediately after Buddha attained Nirvana (at Kushinagara in 483 BC), the earth trembled, stars fell down and celestial music was heard. Three months prior to this final act, the traditional texts state that when Buddha was camping in a grove to the north of the village Upabhoga, there was an earthquake. Buddha himself is said to have interpreted the earthquake as the sign that he would soon pass away into Nirvana.  Earthquakes have been occurring from ancient times in India and our ancestors took considerable interest in these as with other unusual phenomena. There has been an effort over centuries, to identify places which suffered from earthquakes. Varaha Mihira’s approach of describing earthquakes in terms of the extent of ground shaking is refreshingly scientific. The information available so far though very little, is valuable. It is quite likely that there are Sanskrit manuscripts with scientific information yet to be published. It is hoped that persons responsible for preparing seismic zonation maps of the country, study the relevant literature written prior to the colonial period before drawing conclusions on the subject. 
1.   Iyengar, R. N. et al., Indian J. Hist. Sci., 1999, to appear.
2.   Varaha Mihira, Brihat Samhita, Sanskrit text (English translation Bhat, M. R.), Motilal Banarsi Das, New Delhi, 1981.
3.   Ballala Sena, Adbhuta Sagara, Sanskrit text (ed. Muralidhar Sharma), Prabhakari & Co. Benares, 1905.
4.   Chamunda Raya, Lokopakarakam,Kannada text (ed. Sesha Iyengar), Publ. Govt. Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras, 1950.
5.   Kalhana, Raja Tarangini, Sanskrit text (English translation M. A. Stein), 1900. Reprint 1989, Motilal Banarsi Das, New Delhi.
6.   Richter, C. F., Elementary Seismology, W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, 1958.
7.   Bu-ston, History of Buddhism in India and Tibet, Tibetan text (English translation E. Obermiller), Reprint Satguru Publication, New Delhi, 1986.   Source  :  R. N. Iyengar  is in the Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee 247 667, India.

Tuesday, 19 May 2015

Spiritual leader from Junagadh adopts village in Nepal


RAJKOT: A spiritual leader Muktanand Bapu has adopted a village in Earthquake affected Nepal and started relief camps in 20 villages in the Himalayan country to help in rebuilding the nation in the time of natural calamity. Muktanand Bapu of Champarda village, some 30 km away from Junagadh, has adopted Dungana village, some 40 km away from Nepal's capital Kathmandu. 

Muktanand Bapu has been camping in quake affected villages in Nepal and oversee the relief work undertaken by his followers. 

"We have started relief work in 20 villages where we provide basic amenities like food, make shift arrangement for shelter and medical facility to victims. The food is immediate requirement to victims as they have no sources of income and they have lost everything. So, we have started the kitchens in these villages'' said Madhav Jasapara, a follower of Muktanand Bapu.  "The adopted Dungana village will be rebuilt by volunteers where all the basic amenities for the villagers including 128 housing units will be provided.